Neem tree is a tall tree that is found in India. It has very bright leaves. Neem tree has hard brown grayish bark and it blossoms during spring season with small white colored flowers. Neem tree can be very easily cultivated in dry and stony soils and also it requires little quantity of water but too much Sunlight.
Neem tree is planted across India for the purification of air. It is the most common tree found in villages.
Neem tree can withstand wide range of climate. It grows well in hot weather where the shade temperature is also very high i.e. 49°C. Also the neem tree has the cold tolerance power hence it can withstand even the 0°C especially on altitudes up to 1500 m. Owing to this reason and also because of its numerous medical and other benefits it is widely grown in almost 30 different countries. Even it has also now grown successfully in a very small portion of USA.
The growth during the first year of plantation is slow. For young neem excessive cold, frost and shade can be dangerous. At the age of 3-4 years it starts bearing fruits and by the age of 10 years neem tree becomes fully productive. Neem tree has life of more than 150 years.
Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta Indica, has been in use for centuries; its derivatives have found use in public health, toiletries, livestock production and health. Though in the early 19th century, it was used only in households during the mid 90s it was started to be used on a commercial basis. The tree is popularly called the 'wonder Tree' as it is used to cure a large number of diseases, both traditional as well as modern medicine system make use oil neem tree and its parts like bark, seeds, fruit to manufacture products right from skin care to oral care, from pharmaceuticals to pesticides and manure.
After a number of researches done by eminent scientists and research organisations, the tree is being said to have miraculous powers and a multi utility tree with promising results in a number of disciplines. It ha attained a place of pride in the international scientific research and literature.
The bioactivity of neem tree products has received more attention than any other aspect of neem research. It is also being used with jatrophal and other plants to manufacture bio diesel.
Neem tree is extensively used to manufacture natural and herbal products without any side effects. Its plantation and processing has been found to be economically viable as well as desirable for its social and ecological benefits.
Realising its importance in national, regional and international perspective, there is an urgent need to locate, collect and study its diversity and develop effective steps to store it for current and future use.
Neem is a very beneficial plant that is used to cure many diseases. Every part of the neem tree like neem seed, leaves, bark, roots, twigs can be used for medicinal purposes. Even wonderful and beneficial extracts are made from this miraculous tree. Neem oil is beneficial to cure most of the skin problems that otherwise are very hard to cure. Even there are reports of treating Psoriasis and cancer with neem.
Neem twig is used as 'datun' in most of the villages in India where neem tree is common. It is used to brush the teeth. It provides extra strength to the teeth and these remain with you till your entire life.
There are many chemicals in neem tree that are advantageous to control pest. These chemicals attack the hormonal system of insect. Benefit of this is that there wont be any mutated species of that pest in future that is resistant towards neem. Because of this reason neem tree and its parts are extensively used to control the house dwelling pests and even it is used to control some of the crop pests also.
Traditionally many Indian farmers used neem cake as fertilizers in their fields. Neem leaves are also used to enrich the soil for crops. For this neem cakes are ploughed in fields and after this the cash crop is sown in the fields.
Neem because of so many benefits is treated above 'Kalpavriksha', the mythological wish-fulfilling tree. Neem tree purifies the surrounding area and make it free from harmful chemicals. Even the shade of the tree is considered to cure many diseases. Even the temperature under neem tree is -10°C less than its surroundings. It is helps in the restoration of soil thus very helpful to the environment.
There are about 20 million neem trees in India. Each fully grown neem tree has the capability of producing 50 Kg of fruits every year. Also there is extra ordinary potential of producing 540,000 tons of seed from which 107,000 tons of oil and 425,000 tons of cake can be produced. But things do not happen as written so most of the potential go wasted.
Even for neem oil extraction the seeds are to be de-pulped immediately after collection followed by sun drying and storage till extraction otherwise the quality of neem oil deteriorates. Although efforts are being made but still the road is long.
In additional to all the medical and environment benefits neem tree is also considered as an ensurance for a way to heaven. Evil spirits are kept away from home by keeping neem leaves at the entrance. Even the newly born babies are laid upon neem leaves so as to give them a protective aura.
Thus neem tree indeed is a wonderful tree that has many benefits and without any side effect.