The transition from use of synthetic products to natural ones is evident in agricultural industry also; Excessive use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in a number of serious problems like development of insect resistance to insecticides, harm to other natural enemies of insects, toxic effects on plants and soil etc.
Neem is being used to manufacture what is known as the natural or bio insecticide, that are environmental friendly and do not have any toxic effects on plants and soil. Neem insecticide are used to protect both food as well as cash crops like rice, pulses, cotton, oils seeds etc. Great for use on all crops, trees, plants, flowers, fruits, veggies round the home as well as organic and commercial growers.
Active ingredient Azadirachtin, found in neem tree, acts as an insect repellent and insect feeding inhibitor, thereby protecting the plants. This ingredient belongs to an organic molecule class called tetranortriterpenoids. It is similar in structure to insect hormones called "ecdysones," which control the process of metamorphosis as the insects pass from larva to pupa to adult.
It is interesting to note, that neem doesn't kill insects, but alterstheir life process.
The major parts/extracts of neem seed that are used for making neem insecticides are the neem seed kernels and the neem seed oil.
According to recent studies conducted on parts of neem, it was found that neem seed extracts contain azadirachtin, which in turn works by inhibiting the development of immature insects.
Neem oil or the neem seed oil is extensively used to manufacture insecticides used for different crops. Neem oil enters the system of the pests and obstruct their proper working. Insects do not eat, mate, lay eggs r esulting in the breaking of their life cycle. Another interesting function of neem oil pesticides is that they do not harm the beneficial insects. Tne neem oil insecticides only target the chewing and sucking insects.